Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
Born — 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015 was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering.
His father’s name is Jainulabudeen, a boat owner, and his mother Ashiamma, a housewife
After completing his education at the Ramanathapuram Schwartz Matriculation School, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954. He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering.
After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of theDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. He started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army,
Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committeeworking under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.
He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India’s civilian space program and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology
Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister, R Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after another.
- milestone was achieved when locally built Rohini-1 was launched into space, using the SLV rocket. Upon watching the raving success of Kalam, the government agreed for initiation of an advanced missile program under his directorship. He played a pivotal role in developing missiles under the missions Agni and Prithvi.
Kalam was the Chief Executive of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (I.G.M.D.P) which researched in simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one by one.
Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns.
After leaving office, Kalam became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad and the Indian Institute of Management Indore, an honorary fellow of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram, professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University and an adjunct at many other academic and research institutions across India. He taught information technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University.
Kalam’s 79th birthday was recognised as World Student Day by the United Nations. He has also received honorary doctorates from 40 universities.
The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernisation of defence technology in India.
In 2005, Switzerland declared 26 May as “Science Day” to commemorate Kalam’s visit to the country. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from theNational Space Society “to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space-related project.
- In addition to all the profiles that Kalam holds, he has authored numerous influential and inspirational books. Amongst all his books, “India 2020” was the widely read and appreciated one. It forecasted an action plan which advocated India turning into a knowledge superpower and as one of the developed nations of the world by the year 2020. His other books include, “Ignited Minds”, “Mission India”, “Inspiring Thoughts” and “The Luminous Sparks”.
In 2011, he launched his mission for the youth of the nation called the “What Can I Give Movement” with the main aim to defeat corruption in India.
Awards & Achievements
- Kalam is the proud recipient of Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan and Bharat Ratna awards from the Government of India. He received the same in the years 1981, 1990 and 1997, respectively.
- In 1997, he was honored by the Government of India with the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration.
- Later, the next year, he was awarded the Veer Savarkar Award by the Government of India.
- The Alwars Research Centre, Chennai bestowed Kalam with the Ramanujan Award in the year 2000.
- Kalam was honored with the King Charles II Medal by the Royal Society, U.K in 2007.
- The California Institute of Technology, U.S.A presented Kalam with the International von Kármán Wings Award in the year 2009. Same year, he won the Hoover Medal by ASME Foundation, USA.
- The IEEE honored Kalam with IEEE Honorary Membership in 2011.
- Kalam is the proud recipient of honorary doctorates from 40 universities.
- In addition to this, Kalam’s 79th birthday was recognised as World Students’ Day by United Nations.
- He was nominated for the MTV Youth Icon of the Year award in 2003 and in 2006.
Kalam as a scientist:
- Kalam started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army, but remained unconvinced with the choice of his job at DRDO.
- Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to theIndian Space Research Organization (ISRO) where he was the project director of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near earth orbit in July 1980.
- Joining ISRO was one of Kalam’s biggest achievements in life and he is said to have found himself when he started to work on the SLV project.
- Kalam first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the program to include more engineers.
- In 1963–64, he visited Nasa’s Langley Research Center in Hampton Virginia, Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland andWallops Flight Facility situated at Eastern Shore of Virginia.
- During the period between the 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the Polar SLV and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be success.
- In the 1970s, Kalam also directed two projects, namely, Project Devil and Project Valiant , which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam’s directorship.Kalam played an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects.
- His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an advanced missile program under his directorship.
- Kalam and Dr. V. S. Arunachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the Defense Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defense Minister, R. Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one by one.R Venkatraman was instrumental in getting the cabinet approval for allocating 388 crore rupees for the mission, named Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (I.G.M.D.P) and appointed Kalam as the Chief Executive.
- Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns.
He was the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999.
- The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period where he played an intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator, along with R. Chidambaram during the testing phase. Photos and snapshots of him taken by the media elevated Kalam as the country’s top nuclear scientist.
- In 1998, along with cardiologist Dr.Soma Raju, Kalam developed a low cost Coronary stent. It was named as “Kalam-Raju Stent” honouring them.
- In 2012, the duo, designed a rugged tablet PC for health care in rural areas, which was named as “Kalam-Raju Tablet”.
- Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of APJ Abdul Kalam(1999) is an autobiography of A P J Abdul Kalam former President of India. It was written by Dr. Kalam and Arun Tiwari Kalam examines his early life, effort, hardship, fortitude, luck and chance that eventually led him to lead Indian space research, nuclear and missile programs. Kalam started his career, after graduating from Aerospace engineering at MIT (Chennai), India, at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and was assigned to build a hovercraft Later he moved to ISRO and helped establish the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and pioneered the first space launch-vehicle program.
APJ Abdul Kalam, the ‘missile man’ who came to be known as ‘People’s President’ died after he collapsed during a lecture at the IIM in Shillong on Monday July 27, 2015.
Plesantlife.com offering Salutations to MISSILE MAN, LEGEND, People’s President Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam