A Kitchen knife is any knife that is intended to be used in food preparation. While much of this work can be accomplished with a few general-purpose knives – notably a largechef’s knife, a tough cleaver, and a small paring knife – there are also many specialized knives that are designed for specific tasks. Kitchen knives can be made from several different materials.
Type of edge
The edge of the knife can be sharpened to a cutting surface in a number of different ways. There are three main features:
- thegrind – what a cross-section looks like
- the profile – whether the edge is straight or serrated, and straight or curved
- away from edge – how the blade is constructed away from the edge
Kitchen knives generally either feature a curve near the tip, as in a chef’s knife, or are straight for their entire length. The edge itself may be generally smooth (a “straight” or “clean” edge), or may be serrated or scalloped (have “teeth”) in some way. Lastly, the point may differ in shape: most common is a sharp, triangular point (not pictured), as in a chef’s knife or paring knife, though the French point (also called “Sheep’s foot”) is common in santokus, and a round point is sometimes found on long slicing knives.
Various point shapes.
- Serrated bladeknives have a wavy, scalloped or saw-like blade. Serrations help when cutting things that are hard on the outside and soft on the inside (such as bread or tomatoes); the saw-like action breaks the surface more easily than anything except the very sharpest smooth blade. They are also particularly good on fibrous foods such as celery or cabbage. Serrated knives cut much better than plain-edge blade knives when dull, so they do not require frequent sharpening (some serrated blades are claimed never to need sharpening), and are sometimes used to make steak knives which do not need frequent sharpening. However, they are not readily sharpened properly by a user, requiring specialized equipment, and may never be resharpened during their useful life. Serrations are often used to improve the cutting ability of a less-expensive blade not capable of taking and keeping a sharp edge, usually having a thin, polished blade designed to minimise friction. A serrated knife is more practical for a user who is not prepared to sharpen it frequently; a well-maintained and sharpened smooth edge is keener.
Some companies have names for their own serration patterns and apply them to an entire line of knives. Examples are Cutco’s Double-D edge and Henckel’s Eversharp Pro series.
Away from the edge, a knife most simply has either a rectangular or wedge-shaped cross-section (saber grind vs. flat grind), but may also have indentations, whose purpose is to reduce adhesion of the food to the blade. This is widely found in Japanese knives, and in the West is particularly found in meat carving knives, though also in knives for soft cheese, and some use for vegetables.
These indentations take many forms:
- Granton kniveshave semi-circular scallops ground into the edge that alternate on either side of the knife and extend from the edge to the middle of the blade. This design was developed and patented in 1928 by Wm.Grant & Sons LtdThe design of scallop-sided blades is an attempt to ease the cutting and separation of meats, cheese, and vegetables.
- Urasukiis a common feature of Japanese kitchen knives. While Japanese kitchen knives initially appear as a simple chisel grind (flat on the side facing the food, angled on the other), the apparently flat side is subtly concave, to reduce adhesion, and, further, the apparent chisel cut of the edge is actually a small bevel, as otherwise the edge would be weakened by the concave area above.
A knife for soft cheese, with holes to reduce adhesion.
- Holesmay also be found in a blade, to reduce adhesion still further. These are most found in knives for soft cheese, which is particularly soft and sticky.
The edge of a knife gradually loses its sharpness, which can be restored by sharpening. For many types of knives (e.g., butter knives) this is not relevant. Knives with smooth edges can be sharpened by the user; knives with any form of serrated edge should ideally be sharpened with specialist equipment, although the useful life of a serrated knife can be extended by simple sharpeners, even if they damage the edge.
The handles of kitchen knives can be made from a number of different materials, each of which has advantages and disadvantages.
- Woodhandles provide good grip, and most people consider them to be the most attractive. They are, however, slightly more difficult to care for as they must be cleaned more thoroughly and occasionally treated with mineral oil. Most wood handles, especially those of ordinary varnished hardwood, do not resist water well, and will crack or warp with prolonged exposure to water. They should be hand-washed for that reason.
- Plastichandles are more easily cared for than wooden handles and do not absorb microorganisms. However, plastics may also be less resistant to ultraviolet damage and may become brittle over time, resulting in cracking. Some plastics are also slippery in the hand. The material is lighter than most other materials, which may result in a knife that is off-balance or too light for some tastes.
- Compositeknives are made from laminated wood composites impregnated with plastic resin. This is primarily DymondWood by Rutland Plywood Corporation; the same product is sold under brand names such as Pakkawood, Staminawood, Dymondwood, and Colorwood. Composite handles are considered by many chefs to be the best choice because they are as easy to care for and as sanitary as plastic, they have the appearance, weight, and grip of hardwood, and are more durable than either. They often have a laminated, polished appearance, and may have intense or varied coloring.
- Stainless steelhandles are the most durable of all handles, as well as the most sanitary. One disadvantage of some all-metal handles is that knife weight usually goes up considerably, affecting the knife’s balance and increasing hand and wrist fatigue.
Serrated knives are able to cut soft bread without crushing it;.
Bread knives are usually between 15 cm and 25 cm (6 and 10 inches). An offset serrated knife uses an offset handle to ensure the cook’s knuckles will not touch the cutting surface when the blade has cut all of the way through the food.
A carving knife is a large knife (between 20 cm and 38 cm (8 and 15 inches)) that is used to slice thin cuts of meat, including poultry, roasts, hams, and other large cooked meats. A carving knife is much thinner than a chef’s knife (particularly at the spine), enabling it to carve thinner, more precise slices.
A slicing knife serves a similar function to a carving knife, although it is generally longer and narrower. Slicers may have plain or serrated edges.
A ham slicer is a special type of slicer, with a long blade and rounded tip, that is offered by some manufacturers. The average size of the knife is between 9 and 15 inches. They are specially tailored to cutting ham, as they are generally thinner and more flexible. Another use can be for bigger fruit, like watermelon or cantaloupe.
A meat cleaver is a large, most-often rectangular knife that is used for splitting or “cleaving” meat and bone. A cleaver may be distinguished from a kitchen knife of similar shape by the fact that it has a heavy blade that is thick from the spine to quite near the edge. The edge is sharply-beveled and the bevel is typically convex. The knife is designed to cut with a swift stroke without cracking, splintering or bending the blade. Many cleavers have a hole in the end to allow them to be easily hung on a rack. Cleavers are an essential tool for any restaurant that prepares its own meat. The cleaver most often found in a home knife set is a light-duty cleaver about 6 in (15 cm) long. Heavy cleavers with much thicker blades are often found in the trade.
A “lobster splitter” is a light-duty cleaver used mainly for shellfish and fowl which has the profile of a chef’s knife. The Chinese chef’s knifeis sometimes called a “Chinese cleaver”, due to the rectangular blade, but it is unsuitable for cleaving, its thin blade instead designed for slicing; actual Chinese cleavers are heavier and similar to Western cleavers.
A boning knife is used to remove bones from cuts of meat. It has a thin, flexible blade, usually about 12 cm to 15 cm (5 or 6 inches) long, that allows it to get in to small spaces. A stiff boning knife is good for beef and pork, and a flexible one is preferred for poultry and fish.
Filet knives are like very flexible boning knives that are used to filet and prepare fish. They have blades about 15 cm to 28 cm (6 to 11 inches) long, allowing them to move easily along the backbone and under the skin of fish.
Cheese is varied and often challenging to cut. Accordingly, various styles of cheese knives and cheese cutting utensils have been developed. A wire, rather than a knife, is often used to cut cheese.
Soft cheese knives are specially designed for slicing soft cheese. They generally have holes in the blade to prevent the cheese from sticking. Wire cheese cutters are also used.
Hard cheese knives are specially designed for slicing hard cheese. They are sharp, so they can cut exact slices, and often have a forked tip, allowing them to be used as a serving utensil as well. Cheese slicers are also used.
Parmesan cheese knives are specially designed for portioning very hard cheeses. They have very short, thick blades that are forced into the cheese and then used as a lever to break off smaller portions. (Slicing hard cheese is considered improper by connoisseurs, since the cheese – when broken apart – has more surface area, and thus more air contact, which strengthens the apparent scent and taste of the cheese.)
Peeling or tourné knife
Also known as a Bird’s Beak Knife, a peeling knife has a pointed tip that curves downward (sometimes upward) and from side to side (towards the blade). It can be used to cut decorative garnishes (such as rosettes or fluted mushrooms), slice soft fruits, or to remove skins and blemishes. It is also used to make a cut known as a tourné cut in vegetables such as carrots. It is a specialized type of paring knife.
A decorating knife is any knife with a blade designed to make a decorative cut. The most common pattern is a simple zigzag. Decorating knives are used for making fancy cuts for garnishes and presentation.
Usually about 5 cm to 8 cm (2 to 3 inches) long, a trimming knife has a small, curved blade that is shaped somewhat like a boning knife. Trimming knives are ideal for small tasks such as decorating and peeling.
Usually about 5 cm to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) long, a fluting knife has a small blade that is very straight. Fluting knives are ideal for small tasks such as decorating and peeling.
Certain knives are specialized for a particular food – for example, oyster knives are necessary to shuck oysters – they cannot safely be opened otherwise – but are not used outside of shellfish.
A tomato knife is a small knife with a serrated blade. Typically about the size of a utility knife, tomato knives are ideal for cutting through the tough skin and soft flesh of tomatoes.
An oyster knife has a short, thick blade that is used to pry open oysters and separate their meat from the shell. Some models have a shield built into the handle that prevents the knife (and hand) from slipping and going too far into the shell. The handle is normally thick and short, with a bulbous end.
Some notable styles include:
- French: This has a straight, thin blade suited toOstrea edulis, a common oyster in France.
- Providence: This type is long and narrow.
- New Haven: The blade is fairly wide and blunt. The tip is angled upward.
A deveiner or deveining knife is a small knife used to remove the colon (“vein”) from the back of shrimp.
A grapefruit knife has a long, fat, dull blade that is used to separate the flesh of a grapefruit from the peel and inner membranes. The blade is usually serrated, with a blunt tip. Some knives even have a different blade style on each end of the handle – one for the inner membrane, one for the peel – and some have a double blade at the inner membrane end, to cut on both sides of the membrane.
A chestnut knife is used to score a chestnut with an “X” cut prior to roasting, so that steam does not build up inside and cause the nut to explode. They have very shallow blades so that they can cut through the shell without cutting through the nut inside.
Also known as a Mezzaluna (Italian: “half moon”) because of the shape, a mincing knife is a semicircular highly curved blade with a handle that allows the blade to be rocked back and forth repeatedly on a hard surface.This rocking motion is ideal for mincing and chopping. Some mincing knives are supplied with a wooden cutting board with a circular bowl-shaped indentation that matches the curvature of the knife. Some models have two blades that are parallel to each other to increase their mincing power.
Large mezzaluna-like knives with shallow curves are sometimes used to cut pizza, though the rolling pizza cutter is more common for this purpose.
A cutting board is kitchen utensil used in conjunction with a knife. It is a flat surface, generally made of either wood, plastic or glass (glass are less common because they dull the blade; used more for decoration), on which to cut food and which protects counter tops and knives from damage.
A carving fork is a long, two-pronged fork used to hold meat steady while it is being carved. Carving forks are often sold together with carving knives or slicers as part of a matched carving set.
Contrary to what many believe, the honing steel, also known as butcher’s steel or sharpening steel, is not a sharpener. A honing steel straightens the blade, while a sharpenersharpens the blade. A honing steel is a rod made of steel or ceramic, generally about 30 cm (1 foot) long (although can be longer) and 6 mm to 12 mm (¼ to ½ inch) thick. It is used to hone a knife blade after sharpening in order to restore the edge and improve cutting ability.
A knife block is a common way to store knives safely and close at hand in the kitchen. This is an angled block of wood, steel, or other material, with slots for inserting knife blades, and sometimes other accessories, like kitchen scissors. Many knife blocks, particularly those made of wood, cannot be cleaned on the inside. Magnetic knife bars and in-drawer holders are becoming popular as more sanitary alternatives.
Cut Resistant Gloves
Most commonly used in commercial kitchens, cut-resistant gloves (also referred to as cutting gloves) are used on the opposite hand to the cutting hand. They are for protecting this hand should the knife slip and slice into the user’s off hand. They are typically made of kevlar or metal mesh. Other uses for cutting gloves in kitchens include using or cleaning meat/cheese slicers, hand mixing very hot or cold food items, and cleaning or using any type of sharp bladed machine.
- Stainless steelis an alloy of iron, approximately 10–15% chromium, possibly nickel, and molybdenum, with only a small amount of carbon. Typical stainless steel knives are made of 420 stainless, a high-chromium, low-end stainless steel alloy often used in flatware.
- High carbon stainless steelnormally refers to higher-grade, stainless steel alloys with a certain amount of carbon, and is intended to combine the best attributes of carbon steel and ordinary stainless steel. High carbon stainless steel blades do not discolour or stain, and maintain a sharp edge for a reasonable time. Most ‘high-carbon’ stainless blades are made of higher-quality alloys than less-expensive stainless knives, often including amounts of molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, and other components intended to increase strength, edge-holding, and cutting ability.
- Laminatedblades combine the advantages of a hard, but brittle steel which will hold a good edge but is easily chipped and damaged, with a tougher steel less susceptible to damage and chipping, but incapable of taking a good edge. The hard steel is sandwiched (laminated) and protected between layers of the tougher steel. The hard steel forms the edge of the knife; it will take a more acute grind than a less hard steel, and will stay sharp longer.
- Titaniumis lighter and more wear-resistant, but not the hardest metal in the world. However it is more flexible than steel. Titanium does not impart any flavour to food. It is typically expensive and not well suited to cutlery.
- Ceramic knivesare very hard, made from zirconium oxide, retain their sharp edge for a long time, are light in weight, do not impart any taste to food and do not corrode. Suitable for slicing fruit, vegetables and boneless meat. Ceramic knives are best used as a specialist kitchen utensil. Recent manufacturing improvements have made them less brittle.
- Plasticblades are usually not very sharp and are mainly used to cut through vegetables without causing discolouration. They are not sharp enough to cut deeply into flesh, but can cut or scratch skin. However some plastic knives are self-sharpening, so they may actually become so sharp that they usually come with a protective covering.
- Forgedblades are made in an intricate, multi-step process, often by skilled manual labor. A chunk of solid or powdered steel alloy is heated to a high temperature, and pounded while hot to form it. The blade is then heated above critical temperature (which varies between alloys),quenched in an appropriate quenchant, and tempered to the desired hardness. After forging and heat-treating, the blade is polished and sharpened. Forged blades are typically thicker and heavier than stamped blades, which is sometimes advantageous.
- Stampedblades are cut to shape directly from cold-rolled steel, heat-treated for strength, then ground, polished, and sharpened. Though they are not preferred by most professional chefs, several popular knife brands, such as Global and Shun, do use stamped and heat-treated blades in their premium knives. Stamped blades can often, but not always, be identified by the absence of a bolster.
so Friends decide what type of knife you need in your kitchen . ok Take care while working with knife especially with children.